1929 Springfield Streetcar Map

29 Jun

The Greene County Public Library has a wide selection of historic maps of the city and county available, all preserved in good condition. One of those maps is a 1929 map of the city that was intended for visitors, with a map on one side and a city directory on the other. The map is a valuable resource for this streetcar project, as it clearly shows the extent of the Springfield Traction Company’s lines in 1929.

The present day site of the Expo Center is on the right of this image.

While the map shows that the section of St. Louis Street in front of the Expo Center never had a streetcar line historically, present day development patterns along this section from Jefferson to National, including the Expo Center, Hammonds Field, the Shrine Mosque, and historic Route 66 commercial locations, justifies the construction of a streetcar line, connecting back to the square. The square itself was a hive of activity in 1929, with streetcar lines radiating in all directions and direct connections north along Boonville Avenue to the Commercial Street district. The map reveals that the busiest area of the city was from Jefferson on the east to Campbell on the west, and St. Louis and College on the south, north to Commercial street. This historic core is still mostly intact, but lacks anything to tie it together like a streetcar line would. The existence of many important nodes, like City Hall, the historic Commercial Street district, and Drury University within this area will inform the development of a new streetcar plan for the city.

The historic 1929 map, on which the streetcar lines have been highlighted in red, can be found as a PDF download on the Maps page.


The Trouble with Buses

29 Jun

This article in the News-Leader recently highlights one of the advantages that streetcars could have over bus transit: compatibility with historic districts. Buses continually clash with historic preservation and neighborhood residents due to their noise, air pollution, and modern look that doesn’t match the character of the older neighborhoods. Now, the Historic Walnut Street Association has won endorsement   This article shows just how hard locating a concentration of buses in the form of a transfer station can be, with City Utilities having spent five years, three studies, and $200,000 in the search for a suitable site that keeps everyone happy. Streetcars, on the other hand, are hard for preservationists to argue against due to the fact that many neighborhoods in Springfield once had a streetcar line or two. The hum and rumble of a passing streetcar is far less upsetting than the growl and roar of a diesel bus. Streetcars idling at transfer stations make little to no noise. And, streetcars can be historically styled to match the era of the districts they serve. Gomaco Trolley Company of Ida Grove, Iowa, produces replica Birney streetcars, like those that once plied Springfield’s streets.

Of course, we shouldn’t forget that buses have higher CO2 emissions than streetcars and have a direct negative impact on air quality, as shown in this post.

Streetcar Economics

29 Jun

In recent years, rail transport has been picked up once again as a desirable transportation choice by a country fed up with high gas prices and spending most of their lives commuting across the suburban wasteland. Mass transit saw astounding ridership numbers during pre-recession $4 per gallon gasoline prices, and during the tough economic times to follow those numbers have remained steady as commuters look to trim their household transportation budgets, even with gas dipping back below $3. The need for streetcars in many cities has emerged as a way to promote economic growth and downtown revitalization while providing more transit options. Even some conservative editorialists, usually against public transit expenditures, are expounding on the need for streetcars to return life and vitality to city streets.

Lower CO2 Emissions

Source: Seven Rules for Sustainable Cities, by Patrick M. Condon.

The most obvious benefit of streetcars over automobiles and buses is that they run on electricity, which can be generated from clean, renewable sources. Even streetcars that run on electricity generated by coal burning power plants use that energy more efficiently than cars or buses utilize the energy stored in gasoline. In the world of ever decreasing oil supplies, this makes streetcars a more resilient transportation system that can operate on any energy source, transmitted through the medium of electric power.

Lower Cost Per Trip

Source: Seven Rules for Sustainable Cities, by Patrick M. Condon.

Maintaining a family “fleet” of vehicles is not cost effective, especially in the present reality of ever-increasing gas prices and ever-scarcer oil. Travel by diesel bus is even cheaper than a hybrid automobile, and streetcars reduce that cost further. Streetcars are based on the simple technology of electric traction, and are built with parts that can last decades and require little maintenance. Streetcars have a cheaper lifetime cost because they lack tires, oils, fluids, and fragile parts that need constant replacement.

Streetcars as Urban Investment

Source: Street Smart: Streetcars and Cities in the Twenty-First Century, edited by Gloria Ohland and Shelley Poticha, Reconnecting America

By far the most important reason cities around the United States are looking at implementing streetcar systems is their ability to spur development and densification. Portland, Oregon was the first system built in recent years that has produced major real estate investment in the areas it serves, and it is the model upon which systems in Tampa and Little Rock were based. The most astounding example is Kenosha, Wisconsin. Due to its very low construction cost of $4 million, the $150 million in lakefront development the line created was the largest percentage of return on investment seen in any streetcar system construction to date.

Track Cost per Mile

Source: heritagetrolley.org

The cost of building streetcar systems has varied widely from city to city, and is affected by several factors, including land values, style of infrastructure used (light rail or true streetcar) and the extent of additional street improvements that get folded into streetcar proposals.

Currently, Kenosha has the distinction of being the cheapest system constructed to date, providing an example of what is possible for a small city of 90,000 to accomplish with rail transit solutions.  Kenosha managed to keep costs down by using restored secondhand vintage cars, doing a minimal amount of modifications to the streetscape, and using true light-duty streetcar infrastructure.

Source: Federal Highway Administration

$4 million per mile may still seem too expensive for Springfield taxpayers, but when compared with the cost per mile of lane additions and new highways to meet growing traffic, streetcars begin to emerge as a very sensible option.

Springfield Streetcar: The Future of the Past

10 Jun

Spingfield, Missouri was once home to an extensive streetcar network that in 1929 covered the entire city with access to public transportation. Park Central Square was a beehive of activity, with streetcar lines from four directions meeting in a grand circular junction of rails and wires. In 1936, the Springfield Traction Company announced that the beloved streetcars would be replaced by gasoline powered buses, because it seemed “the modern thing to do.” After the final “streetcar parade” in August of 1937, the streetcars, like so many others across the country, faded into history. Succumbing to the forces of improved roads and increased private automobile ownership, the streetcars that created the American city on their characteristic patterns of development went from being the most modern transportation system in the world to nothing but a quaint memory in the hearts of romantics.

Today, streetcars are being proven in city after city across the country as a successful means of spurring development in downtown areas, from Portland, Oregon to Tampa, Florida. And while some streetcar systems can be expensive, building an effective streetcar link is far cheaper than many in local governments around the area may realize. Kenosha, Wisconsin spent $6 million on a streetcar loop that covered their entire downtown district, and in return got $150 million worth of downtown, brownfield, and lakefront development. Streetcar tracks bring development, and that is what downtown Springfield needs. With the recent report that the Expo Center will need $53 million in private investment in the surrounding area to make it truly competitive, and an additional $24 to $55 million in public subsidies, the comparatively low costs of streetcar development become eye-opening.

Springfield Streetcar will be developing a plan for implementing streetcars in downtown Springfield, Missouri, hoping to generate interest among citizens, businesses, and government in the benefits of rail-based public transportation in the areas of tourism, economics, and sustainability.

Join us and come ride the streetcar!